Styles and genres in music
Historical song, aria, romance, cantata, opera, march, waltz, prelude, sonata – all these are examples of various musical genres. Each of them combines many works. Waltzes, for example, were written by almost all composers of the 19th — 20th centuries. Thus, a genre is a certain type of musical work within which an unlimited number of compositions can be written. Genres differ from each other by the characteristics of their content and form, and these differences are caused by their vital and cultural goals, peculiar to each of them. Take, for example, march. All his rhythm, texture, melody and other expressive means are perfectly adapted to the step. A completely different example is a lullaby. Everything is different here: a different purpose of music, a different content and form. The music of a lullaby should soothe the baby, wrap it in a warm caress, immerse it in the measured rhythm of rocking movements.
A surprising and inexhaustible variety of genres directly related to life. Medical magical songs of the Kazakhs, chants of forest hermits in ancient India, songs that awaken babies (along with lullabies) are of the Yakuts. In some African communities, singing accompanies legal proceedings, in Arab countries there existed a kind of song-encyclopedia, song-catalogs, in which crafts, stars, winds, and tribes were listed. Peculiar genres of musical poetic disputes, competitions. In the art of the troubadours of the XI — XIV centuries. Tenson was such a genre – a disputation song on artistic, psychological or philosophical themes. Azerbaijani days – songs-dialogues. The Eskimos song dispute had a more severe meaning: it was something of a bloodless musical and poetic duel that resolved life conflicts. The defeated was removed from the tribe.
With an incalculable variety of specific circumstances in which genres were born, their development had general patterns. Thus, all the peoples in antiquity believed that the success of the work depended on the deities whose protection should be achieved. This magical goal was followed by music. Repeated, persistent repetition of melodies and rhythms turned the music into a spell. Music helped people in labor. Thus were born the songs associated with agricultural work – mowing, reaping, threshing; songs of camel drivers from the Arabs, spinning songs, songs of washers in Europe. The most important events of the history, feats of heroes and folk heroes formed the basis of the first epic genres. All nations have family life songs – lullabies, weddings. In the household genres of different classes, a line of entertainment music was gradually outlined. In Kievan Rus IX — XI centuries. she was represented by the art of buffoons (see Old Russian music). In England, XVI-XVII centuries. These are “masks”, entertainment shows with music. Their predecessors are the “interdependencies” of the 12th — 14th centuries, which were performed at feasts between the courses.
The struggle of the people for their rights, the revolutionary movements gave rise to music that unified the rebels and inspired them to fight. Intonation of courage (conscription), solidarity can be heard in the songs of the Great French Revolution of 1789-1794. They are imbued with songs that sang in the pre-revolutionary years in our country, during the civil and Great Patriotic wars.
Genres directly involved in life, sometimes referred to as primary, applied. As musical art developed, new genres arose, such as prelude, fugue, fantasy, symphony, instrumental concerto, opera. They are no longer immersed in the thick of life, but as it were raised above it. Their main goal is the spiritual enrichment of man. The genres of serious music demanded from the creators the tension of all creative and personal forces: the genius of human thinking found a vivid expression in them. It is not by chance that the names of I. S. Bach, V. A. Mozart, L. Beethoven, P. I. Tchaikovsky, M. P. Mussorgsky, D. D. Shostakovich are pronounced with the same respect as the names of William Shakespeare, I. Newton, A. Einstein, D.I. Mendeleev. From listeners the genres of serious music require a deep, focused perception. From each other, these genres differ in content and form. Here we have a symphony – one of the most capacious and complex genres, the breadth of coverage of life resembles a novel or drama. But is it possible to imagine that all serious music consists only of symphonies? After all, a symphony, like an opera, is a large-scale work, generalized in form. And man also needs artistic comprehension of the most subtle movements of his inner world. And here the genres of the chamber plan appear in the musical art: elegy, nocturne, lyrical plays (see Chamber-instrumental music). Encyclopedia of diverse human feelings becomes a romantic prelude. The fantasy enthralls the listener with a free improvisational flight of thought. Fugue represents a pattern of rigorous, focused thinking (see Polyphony). The concert draws us into the atmosphere of a soloist and orchestra competition.